Database management is the method for managing information that aids the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users making changes as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from becoming corrupted by unexpected failure. It is a part of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve huge amounts of data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that are organized according to a certain scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table contains a set of attributes or fields which provide information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most widely used type of database in the present. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change many sections of the database

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of external views based on different data models and can include virtual tables that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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